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Dynamics of biogenic amines and bacterial communities in a Thai fermented pork product Nham

Santiyanont, Pannita, Chantarasakha, Kanittha, Tepkasikul, Preenapha, Srimarut, Yanee, Mhuantong, Wuttichai, Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke, Zo, Young-Gun, Chokesajjawatee, Nipa
Food research international 2019 v.119 pp. 110-118
Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Weissella hellenica, acetic acid, bacterial communities, fermentation, genes, histamine, ingredients, lactic acid, lactic acid bacteria, pH, pork, ribosomal RNA, risk, sequence analysis, starter cultures, tyramine, Thailand
A traditional Thai fermented pork, nham, is a product popularly consumed in Thailand. Fermentation of the protein-rich product by uncontrolled bacterial community can result in high amounts of hazardous biogenic amines (BA). This study aimed to unveil dynamics of microbial community and its relation to BA accumulation in nham. Three batches of nham were analyzed for pH, lactic acid bacteria population, concentrations of organic acids and BA. Bacterial communities were analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In all batches, pH dropped to the quality standard of nham (≤4.6) within 3–5 days by production of lactic acid and acetic acid. Initial BA levels varied batch-by-batch and increased with fermentation time. In the highest quality batch, levels of histamine, tyramine, and total BA were within the recommended safety limits (200, 100 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively) throughout the 10-days study. However, in other batches, unsafe levels of tyramine and total BA were found after 5 days of fermentation. The results indicated that over-fermentation and inferior conditions of ingredients increased risk due to high levels of BA. Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Weissella were prevalent and comprised >90% of total bacteria during fermentation. Weissella was predominant in the batch with low BA while Lactobacillus and Pediococcus were predominant in the higher BA batches. A negative correlation between Weissella dominance and total BA was observed (r = −0.90, p = .003). A 10% increase in dominance of Weissella was associated with 75–170 mg/kg decrease in total BA. W. hellenica was the species prevalent only in low BA batch. Therefore, W. hellenica isolates were suggested as subjects for future study to develop efficient starter culture securing safety of nham.