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Early stage metabolic events associated with the establishment of Vitis vinifera – Plasmopara viticola compatible interaction

Nascimento, Rui, Maia, Marisa, Ferreira, António E.N., Silva, Anabela B., Freire, Ana Ponces, Cordeiro, Carlos, Silva, Marta Sousa, Figueiredo, Andreia
Plant physiology and biochemistry 2019 v.137 pp. 1-13
Plasmopara viticola, Vitis vinifera, carbohydrate content, cultivars, downy mildew, flavonoids, fungi, hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, messenger RNA, pathogens, phenylpropanoids
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important fruit crop in the world, with 7.5 million of production area in 2017. The domesticated varieties of grapevine are highly susceptible to many fungal infections, of which downy mildew, caused by the biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curt.) Berl. et de Toni is one of the most threatening. In V. vinifera, several studies have shown that a weak and transient activation of a defense mechanism occurs, but it is easily overcome by the pathogen leading to the establishment of a compatible interaction. Major transcript, protein and physiologic changes were shown to occur at later infection time-points, but comprehensive data on the first hours of interaction is scarce.In the present work, we investigated the major physiologic and metabolic changes that occur in the first 24 h of interaction between V. vinifera cultivar Trincadeira and P. viticola. Our results show that there was a negative modulation of several metabolic classes associated to pathogen defense such as flavonoids or phenylpropanoids as well as an alteration of carbohydrate content after inoculation with the pathogen. We also found an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and increase of lipid peroxidation but to a low extent, that seems to be insufficient to restrain pathogen growth during the initial biotrophic phase of the interaction.