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Evaluation of low-level diode laser irradiation and various irrigant solutions on the biological response of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth

Tunç, Hamit, Islam, Aylin, Kabadayı, Hilal, Vatansever, Hafize Seda, Yilmaz, Hasan Guney
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology 2019 v.191 pp. 156-163
EDTA (chelating agent), amphotericin B, apoptosis, biphenyl, cell viability, culture media, cytotoxicity, diodes, disinfection, fetal bovine serum, gentamicin, glutamine, humans, irradiation, ozonation, sodium hypochlorite, stem cells, survival rate, teeth, tetrazolium
This study aimed to evaluate cytotoxic effects and the apoptosis of Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser irradiation, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ozonated water and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). Cells were exposed to EDTA (5%, 8.5%, 17%), NaOCl (1%, 2.5%, 5%) ozonated water (5, 10, 20 μg/ml) and GaAlAs diode laser irradiation (energy densities of 0.5, 1, 1.5 j/cm2). Culture medium included D-MEM, supplemented with 15% foetal bovine serum, 1% l-glutamine, 1% penicillin-streptomycin, 1% gentamycin, amphotericin-B and served as control group. The prepared irrigants were added to the relevant wells and incubated with the cells at 37 °C for 5, 10 and 15 min. The cells in the laser group were also incubated at 37 °C for 5, 10 and 15 min after the laser application. Cell viability and proliferation were analysed with the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The percentage of cell viability showed a significant reduction in all concentrations of the EDTA and NaOCl groups when compared to the control group, diode laser irradiation and ozonated water groups at 5th, 10th and 15th minutes respectively but high cytotoxic effects of all EDTA and NaOCl groups with decreased over 50% of cell viability were observed at the 15th minute. Also EDTA group with 17% concentration (17%E) presented the lowest survival rate on SHEDs with mean of 21.67% ± 6.101 at this time interval. The lowest toxic effects were observed at the 5th minutes compared to other time periods at experimental groups. For detection of apoptotic cells, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling (TUNEL) method was performed. According to the MTT results, doses showed the highest toxicity (cell survival decreased over 50%) in each group were selected for TUNEL assay (17% EDTA; 1% NaOCl; 10 μg/ml Ozonated water; 1.5 j/cm2 diode laser irradiation). The significantly lowest percentages of TUNEL-positive cells were detected in ozonated water (10.67% ± 2.93) and diode laser irradiation (13.24% ± 7.61) compared to EDTA (39.89% ± 11.54) and NaOCl (31.15% ± 10.64) respectively. Also the difference between percentage of TUNEL-positive cells in EDTA and NaOCl groups was not significant. Synergistic combination of ozonated water and diode laser irradiation may be used in the disinfection step of necrotic root canals.