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Photobiological properties of phthalocyanine photosensitizers Photosens, Holosens and Phthalosens: A comparative in vitro analysis

Brilkina, Anna A., Dubasova, Lubov V., Sergeeva, Ekaterina A., Pospelov, Anton J., Shilyagina, Natalia Y., Shakhova, Natalia M., Balalaeva, Irina V.
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology 2019 v.191 pp. 128-134
Golgi apparatus, adenocarcinoma, bladder, cell membranes, cell viability, humans, hydrophilicity, irradiation, lysosomes, photosensitizing agents
Photobiological properties of phthalocyanine photosensitizers, namely, clinically approved Photosens and new compounds Holosens and Phthalosens were analyzed on transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (T24) and human hepatic adenocarcinoma (SK-HEP-1). Photosens is a sulfated aluminum phthalocyanine with the number of sulfo groups 3.4, which is characterized by a high degree of hydrophilicity, slow cellular uptake, localization in lysosomes and the lowest photodynamic activity. Holosens is an octacholine zinc phthalocyanine, a cationic compound with significant charge. Holosens more efficiently enters the cells; it is localized in Golgi apparatus in addition to lysosomes and exhibits a significant inhibitory effect on cell viability upon irradiation. The highest photodynamic activity was demostrated by Phthalosens. Phthalosens is a metal-free analog of Photosens with a number of sulfo groups 2.5, which determines its amphiphilicity. Phthalosens is characterized by the highest rate of cellular uptake through the outer cell membrane, localization in cell membrane as well as in lysosomes and Golgi apparatus, and the highest activity upon irradiation among the photosensitizers studied. In general, changes in the physicochemical properties of Holosens and Phthalosens ensured an increase in their efficiency in vitro compared to Photosens. The features of accumulation, intracellular distribution and their interrelation with photodynamic activity, revealed in this work, indicate the prospects of Phthalosens and Holosens for clinical practice.