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Effects of glycinin and β-conglycinin on growth performance and intestinal health in juvenile Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis)

Fenglu Han, Xiaodan Wang, Jianlin Guo, Changle Qi, Chang Xu, Yuan Luo, Erchao Li, Jian G. Qin, Liqiao Chen
Fish & shellfish immunology 2019 v.84 pp. 269-279
Burkholderia, Dysgonomonas, Eriocheir sinensis, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, amylases, antigens, beta-conglycinin, catalase, crabs, diet, enzyme activity, fish, gene expression, genes, glycinin, growth performance, immunity, inflammation, interleukin-2, intestinal microorganisms, intestines, juveniles, lignocellulose, malondialdehyde, microbial communities, peritrophic membrane, shellfish, soybeans, trypsin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, virulent strains, weight gain
This study investigates the effects of two soybean antigens (glycinin and β-conglycinin) as an antinutritional substance in the diet on the growth, digestive ability, intestinal health and microbiota of juvenile Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis). The isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets contained two soybean antigens at two levels each (70 and 140 g/kg β-conglycinin, 80 and 160 g/kg glycinin) and a control diet without β-conglycinin or glycinin supplementation, and were used respectively to feed juvenile E. sinensis for seven weeks. Dietary inclusion of either glycinin or β-conglycinin significantly reduced crab survival and weight gain. The crabs fed diets containing soybean antigens had higher malondialdehyde concentrations and lower catalase activities in the intestine than those in the control. The activities of trypsin and amylase in the intestine were suppressed by dietary β-conglycinin and glycinin. Dietary glycinin or β-conglycinin impaired the immunity and morphological structure of intestine, especially the peritrophic membrane. The mRNA expression of constitutive and inducible immune responsive genes (lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor and interleukin-2 enhancer-binding factor 2) increased while the mRNA expression of the main genes related to the structural integrity peritrophic membrane (peritrophin-like gene and peritrophic 2) significantly decreased in the groups with soybean antigen addition. Soybean antigen could also change the intestinal microbial community. The abundance of pathogenic bacteria (Ochrobactrum, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas) increased significantly in both soybean antigen groups. Although pathogenic bacteria Vibrio were up-regulated in the glycinin group, the abundance of Dysgonomonas that degraded lignocellulose and ameliorated the gut environment decreased in the glycinin group. This study indicates that existence of soybean antigens (glycinin or β-conglycinin) could induce gut inflammation, reshape the community of gut microbiota, and cause digestive dysfunction, ultimately leading to impaired growth in crabs.