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The actin motor MYO-5 effect in the intracellular organization of Neurospora crassa

Ramírez-del Villar, Arianne, Roberson, Robert W., Callejas-Negrete, Olga A., Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R.
Fungal genetics and biology 2019 v.125 pp. 13-27
Neurospora crassa, actin, conidia, conidiation, eukaryotic cells, fungi, germination, hyphae, microfilaments, microtubules, mitochondria, mutants, myosin, photobleaching, physiological transport, plasma membrane, secretion, vacuoles
In filamentous fungi, polarized growth is the result of vesicle secretion at the hyphal apex. Motor proteins mediate vesicle transport to target destinations on the plasma membrane via actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Myosins are motor proteins associated with actin filaments. Specifically, class V myosins are responsible for cargo transport in eukaryotes. We studied the dynamics and localization of myosin V in wild type hyphae of Neurospora crassa and in hyphae that lacked MYO-5. In wild type hyphae, MYO-5-GFP was localized concentrated in the hyphal apex and colocalized with Spitzenkörper. Photobleaching studies showed that MYO-5-GFP was transported to the apex from subapical hyphal regions. The deletion of the class V myosin resulted in a reduced rate of hyphal growth, apical hyperbranching, and intermittent loss of hyphal polarity. MYO-5 did not participate in breaking the symmetrical growth during germination but contributed in the apical organization upon establishment of polarized growth. In the Δmyo-5 mutant, actin was organized into thick cables in the apical and subapical hyphal regions, and the number of endocytic patches was reduced. The microvesicles-chitosomes observed with CHS-1-GFP were distributed as a cloud occupying the apical dome and not in the Spitzenkörper as the WT strain. The mitochondrial movement was not associated with MYO-5, but tubular vacuole position is MYO-5-dependent. These results suggest that MYO-5 plays a role in maintaining apical organization and the integrity of the Spitzenkörper and is required for normal hyphal growth, polarity, septation, conidiation, and proper conidial germination.