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Phylogenetic relationships of five Oriental Apanteles species-groups (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) by concatenating four molecular markers
- Aman-Zuki, Ameyra, Mohammed, Muhamad Azmi, Md.-Zain, Badrul Munir, Yaakop, Salmah
- Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology 2019 v.22 no.1 pp. 341-352
- Apanteles, genetic markers, monophyly, ribosomal DNA
- Genus Apanteles is a cosmopolitan and largest genus in Microgastrinae that can be set as chief example of the subfamily to be studied for. However, highly similar morphological characters intraspecifically lead to difficulty in identifying this genus. In this study, 25 individuals of Apanteles were identified morphologically and molecularly by using error rates approach of barcoding analysis. The phylogenetic of the Apanteles that consisted of five species-groups were studied together with their molecular time divergences by using four molecular markers i.e., COI, 16S, 28S and Cyt B. The species groups are mycetophilus, ultor, merula, merope and ater. The phylogenetic analyses show that each species groups were monophyletic with formation of sister clad for merula and merope-group. The phylogenetic analyses of Apanteles species-group were well resolved and supported by their morphological and taxonomical status. This study is a first record on the phylogenetic of five Oriental Apanteles species-group.