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On the characterisation of the porcine gland-specific salivary proteome

Prims, Sara, Van Raemdonck, Geert, Vanden Hole, Charlotte, Van Cruchten, Steven, Van Ginneken, Chris, Van Ostade, Xaveer, Casteleyn, Christophe
Journal of proteomics 2019 v.196 pp. 92-105
alpha-amylase, carbonate dehydratase, isoproterenols, parotid gland, piglets, pilocarpine, protein composition, proteins, proteome, saliva, secretion, tandem mass spectrometry
To expand the knowledge on the porcine salivary proteome, secretions from the three major salivary glands were collected from anaesthetised piglets. Pilocarpine and isoproterenol were simultaneously injected intraperitoneally to increase the volume and protein concentration of the saliva, respectively. The protein composition and relative protein-specific abundance of saliva secreted by the parotid gland and by the mandibular and monostomatic sublingual gland, were determined using iTRAQ. When combining two detection methods, MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and Q-Exactive orbitrap MS/MS, a total of 122 porcine salivary proteins and 6 mammalian salivary proteins with a predicted porcine homolog were identified. Only a quantitative and not a qualitative difference was observed between both ductal secretions. The 128 proteins were detected in both secretions, however, at different levels. Twenty-four proteins (20 porcine and 4 mammalian with a predicted porcine homolog) were predominantly secreted by the parotid gland, such as carbonic anhydrase VI and alpha-amylase. Twenty-nine proteins (all porcine) were predominantly secreted by the mandibular and sublingual glands, for example salivary lipocalin and submaxillary apomucin protein. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008853.In humans, more than 3000 salivary proteins have been identified. To our knowledge, previous studies on porcine saliva only identified a total of 34 proteins. This research increased the total number of identified proteins in porcine saliva to 143. This insight into the porcine salivary proteome will facilitate the search for potential biomarkers that may help in the early detection of pathologies and follow-up of animal welfare. Moreover, it can also endorse the value of a porcine animal model and contribute to a better understanding of the animal's physiology. Additionally, this was the first study to collect and analyse gland specific saliva of pigs. The obtained relative-quantitative knowledge of the identified proteins is valuable when comparing data of stimulated (chewing on a device) vs. unstimulated (passive) saliva collection in the future, since salivary stimulation changes the relative contribution of the major salivary glands to the whole saliva in the oral cavity. For example, carbonic anhydrase VI, which is present in higher concentrations in parotid saliva, has a higher concentration in stimulated whole saliva because of the larger contribution of the parotid gland after stimulation by chewing.