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Trypanosoma madeirae sp. n.: A species of the clade T. cruzi associated with the neotropical common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus

Barros, Juliana H.S., Lima, Luciana, Schubach, Armando O., Teixeira, Marta M.G.
International journal for parasitology 2019 v.8 pp. 71-81
Artibeus jamaicensis, Desmodus, Triatoma infestans, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma rangeli, blood, blood sampling, genotype, liver, mammals, new species, phylogeny, Brazil
Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed the growing diversity of bat trypanosomes. Here, 14 isolates from blood samples of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (Phyllostomidae) from Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, were cultivated, and morphologically and molecularly characterized. All isolates represent a novel species named Trypanosoma madeirae n. sp. positioned in the Neobat lineage of the clade T. cruzi. The Neobat lineage also comprises closely related trypanosomes of clades Neotropic 1, 2 and 3 from diverse phyllostomid species. Trypanosomes of Neotropic 1, found in Trachops cirrhosus and Artibeus jamaicensis (phyllostomids), likely represent a different species or genotype closely related to T. madeirae. Consistent with its phylogenetic positioning, T. madeirae differs from Trypanosoma cruzi in morphology of both epimastigote and trypomastigote culture forms and does not infect Triatoma infestans. Similar to its closest relatives of Neobat lineage, T. madeirae was unable to develop within mammalian cells. To date, PCR-surveys on archived blood/liver samples unveiled T. madeirae exclusively in D. rotundus from Southern to Northern Brazil. The description of a new species of bat trypanosome associated with vampire bats increases the repertoire of trypanosomes infecting D. rotundus, currently comprised of Trypanosoma cruzi, T. cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma pessoai, and Trypanosoma madeirae.