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Use of ZrO2 supported on bamboo leaf ash as a heterogeneous catalyst in microwave-assisted biodiesel conversion

Fatimah, Is, Rubiyanto, Dwiarso, Taushiyah, Ana, Najah, Fitri Badriatun, Azmi, Ulil, Sim, Yoke-Leng
Sustainable chemistry and pharmacy 2019 v.12 pp. 100129
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, ash (inorganic matter), bamboos, biodiesel, catalysts, catalytic activity, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, fatty acid methyl esters, green chemistry, leaves, microwave treatment, physicochemical properties, scanning electron microscopy, sorption, soybean oil, zirconium oxide
In this research, bamboo leaf ash was utilized as ZrO2 support for heterogeneous catalyst application. The preparation of ZrO2-supported bamboo leaf ash (ZrO2/BLA) was conducted by the impregnation method with a metal content of 20%wt. The physicochemical characterization of the prepared material was studied using XRD, gas sorption analysis, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The material was tested for use in the biodiesel conversion of soybean oil under microwave-assisted conversion. The results show that the physicochemical characteristics of ZrO2/BLA facilitated the catalytic activity in biodiesel conversion. The effects of the reaction method, the methanol-to-oil molar ratio, and the catalyst weight were investigated. The microwave-assisted method gave yields comparable to those obtained via the reflux method in less time. The optimized conditions of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production using the microwave-assisted reaction method were a 15:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 30 min of reaction time and 12%wt. catalyst weight. The catalyst exhibited reusability properties, as indicated by its relatively similar yields, initial rates and turnover frequencies observed when fresh and reused catalysts were used.