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Cholestasis affects enteral tolerance and prospective weight gain in the NICU
- Niccum, Maria, Khan, Marium N., Middleton, Jeremy P., Vergales, Brooke D., Syed, Sana
- Clinical nutrition ESPEN 2019 v.30 pp. 119-125
- bilirubin, cholestasis, enteral feeding, hospitals, intestines, liver diseases, neonates, parenteral feeding, regression analysis, risk factors, surgery
- Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease is characterized by cholestasis and hepatic dysfunction due to parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy. We described key features of cholestatic infants receiving PN to assess overall outcomes in this population at our institution.This is a retrospective single center study of 163 neonates grouped into cholestatic (n = 63) and non-cholestatic (n = 100) as defined by peak conjugated bilirubin of ≥2.0 mg/dL or < 0.8 mg/dL, respectively. Univariate and multiple regression models were used to study associations between variables and outcomes of interest.Lower Apgar scores (4 ± 3 vs. 6 ± 3, p-value = <0.005 at 1 min; 6 ± 2 vs. 7 ± 2, p < 0.005 at 5 min) and lower birth weight (adj β [SE] = 0.62 [0.27], p-value = 0.024) were risk factors for developing cholestasis. Cholestatic infants were more likely to have had gastrointestinal surgery (31 [49%] vs. 15 [15%], p-value <0.005), received PN for a longer duration (40 ± 39 days vs. 11 ± 7 days, p-value <0.005), and started enteral feeds later in life (86 ± 23 days vs. 79 ± 20 days, p-value <0.005) when compared to non-cholestatic infants. Weight percentiles in cholestatic infants were lower both at hospital discharge (14 ± 19 vs. 24 ± 22, p-value <0.005) and at 6 months of age (24 ± 28 vs. 36 ± 31, p-value = 0.05).Cholestasis in the NICU is a multifactorial process, but it has a long lasting effect on prospective weight gain in infants who receive PN in the NICU. This finding highlights the importance of follow-up for adequate growth and the potential benefit from aggressive nutritional support.