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The activity of commercial antimicrobials, and essential oils and ethanolic extracts of Olea europaea on Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from pregnant women

Mukesi, Munyaradzi, Iweriebor, Benson C., Obi, Larry C., Nwodo, Uchechukwu U., Moyo, Sylvester R., Okoh, Anthony I.
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2019 v.19 no.1 pp. 34
Olea europaea, Streptococcus agalactiae, alternative medicine, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, disease control, drug resistance, drugs, erythromycin, essential oils, infants, leaf extracts, levofloxacin, linezolid, meningitis, microorganisms, minimum inhibitory concentration, pneumonia, pregnant women, sepsis (infection), vaccine development, vancomycin, Namibia, South Africa
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of disease in pregnant women and new born babies where it causes early and late onset disease characterised by sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis. Ten to 37 % of pregnant women in the world are colonised with GBS while intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has led to significant reduction in early onset disease. The increase in drug resistant microorganisms has become a major threat. Development of vaccines is still in progress so there is need for new and safer alternatives to treatment. METHODS: Benzyl penicillin, Ampicillin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Levofloxacin, Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Linezolid, Vancomycin, Tetracycline and Cotrimoxazole, Olea europaea leaf extracts and essential oil were tested against GBS isolates from South Africa and Namibia. RESULTS: The isolates showed 100% sensitivity to benzyl penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, linezolid, vancomycin, O. europaea leaf extracts and essential oils. Only one isolate (0.6%) was resistant to cefotaxime and 23.4 and 10.4% were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin respectively. CONCLUSION: GBS isolates showed sensitivity to O. europaea extracts at low minimum inhibitory concentrations. Β lactams are still the drugs of choice for treatment of GBS disease but O. europaea extracts potent as an alternative source of antimicrobials.