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Improvement in nano-hybrid membrane PES–nanosilica performance using ultra violet irradiation and acetone–ethanol immersion for produced water treatment
- Kusworo, T. D., Aryanti, N., Qudratun,, Utomo, D. P., Widayat,
- International journal of environmental science and technology 2019 v.16 no.2 pp. 973-986
- antifouling activities, hydrophilicity, irradiation, moieties, nanomaterials, scanning electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopy, silica, solvents, spectroscopy, ultraviolet radiation, water treatment
- This research was performed primarily to investigate the effect of membrane immersion in hydrophilic solvents (mixture of acetone–ethanol). Special emphasis was focused on the study of membrane morphology toward performance of nano-hybrid polyethersulfone (PES)–nanosilica membrane for produced water treatment. In this research, nano-hybrid PES–nanosilica membranes with immersion and without immersion were prepared using dry-/wet-phase inversion technique. The prepared membranes were immersed in the mixture of acetone–ethanol at various mass ratios of 1:5 and 1:8. The immersion of membranes allowed the alteration of membrane morphology to be more hydrophilic. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) result and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy analysis confirmed that membrane immersed in acetone–ethanol significantly enhanced the hydrophilicity of the membrane by increasing the number of hydrophilic-specific functional group. The SEM surface images indicated the good compatibility between the PES and nanosilica for immersed membrane. Nano-hybrid membrane immersed in the acetone–ethanol of 1:8 performed best as shown by the flux and rejection enhancement. Comparing to the pure PES performance, the permeate flux and rejection of nano-hybrid membrane PES–nanosilica increased to 5 and 39%, respectively. On the other hand, immersed nano-hybrid membrane in acetone–ethanol of 1:8 with combination of UV irradiation increased the permeate water flux and rejection to 21 and 15%, respectively. In addition, the immersion in the acetone–ethanol displayed better antifouling behavior. The research results revealed the improvement in membrane performance for produced water treatment after being immersed in acetone–ethanol and UV-irradiated.