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A critical review of battery thermal performance and liquid based battery thermal management

Wu, Weixiong, Wang, Shuangfeng, Wu, Wei, Chen, Kai, Hong, Sihui, Lai, Yongxin
Energy conversion and management 2019 v.182 pp. 262-281
air conditioning, electric vehicles, energy, energy conservation, fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, heat transfer, indirect contact, liquids, lithium batteries, models, phase transition, renewable energy sources, systematic review, temperature
Electric vehicles with green power system are viable alternatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil energy resources. The power source such as Li-ion battery has high sensitivity to temperature, which is a challenge related to battery thermal management. Battery thermal management system plays a vital role in the high efficiency, dependability and security of these batteries. Modern commercial electric vehicles normally use liquid based battery thermal management system, which has high heat transfer efficiency with the function of cooling or heating. This paper firstly looks at the effects of temperature on the battery performance from three aspects: low temperature, high temperature and differential temperature. Then the battery management system is discussed with the main emphasis on battery modeling methods and thermal management strategies. Further, a systematic review of liquid based system is presented in terms of direct and indirect contact mode. Progress made in liquid channel configuration and heat transfer fluid aiming at improving the overall thermal performance is also discussed. With the function of liquid-gas phase change process, the heat pipe based battery thermal management is feasible and effective for its high heat transfer efficiency. To further facilitate vehicle-mounted energy optimization, an integrated vehicle thermal management system with appropriate energy allocation is required. In addition, the battery thermal management system connected with the other subsystems (e.g., heating ventilation air conditioning system) by utilizing the liquid circulation in vehicle thermal management has great potential in energy-saving and efficiency promotion.