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Repeated dose toxicity evaluation of a cold chain-free, live, attenuated oral cholera vaccine in Sprague Dawley rats

Xian, Tew Hui, Parasuraman, Subramani, Sinniah, Kurunathan, Ravichandran, Manickam, Prabhakaran, Guruswamy
Vaccine 2019 v.37 no.5 pp. 711-720
acute toxicity, adverse effects, body weight, cholera, cold, death, heart, hematologic tests, histopathology, kidneys, laboratory animals, leukocytes, liquids, liver, lungs, rats, spleen, toxicity testing, ureter, vaccines
The repeated dose toxicity of a prototype cold chain-free, live, attenuated oral cholera vaccine containing 5 × 106 CFU/mL of the VCUSM14P strain was evaluated in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (single dose administered daily for 30 days) to ascertain its safety for clinical use. Repeated dose toxicity studies for cholera vaccines in the literature have administered 2 or 3 fixed doses at 7, 14, 21 or 69 day intervals. The present study reports an evaluation of 30 repeated doses of cholera vaccine administered at three different concentrations (Group II (1.25 × 106 CFU), Group III (2.5 × 106 CFU) and Group IV (5 × 106 CFU)) in SD rats. The liquid vaccine was administered orally to the rats with the respective dose every day, and normal saline was administered to the control group (Group I). No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the body weights and biochemical parameters of the rats after 15 and 30 repeated doses compared to those of the control group. However, compared to those of Group I, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the organ to body weight ratios of the lungs, ureter, liver, kidney, heart and spleen was found in G-II, G-III and G-IV. In the haematological analysis, a significant increase in the WBC was observed in G-II and G-IV compared to that in G-I. The histopathological findings indicated mild to moderate degeneration in the liver, kidney, heart and spleen in the treated rats. Mild to moderate lymphocytic infiltration in the lungs was observed in the G-II and G-III rats, and severe infiltration was observed in the G-IV rats. These histopathological findings may be attributed to the 30 doses of vaccine given in daily succession without an interval. In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of vaccine up to 10 × 106 CFU did not cause any adverse effects and lethality in SD rats.