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Species composition, toxigenic potential and pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum species complex isolates from southern Brazilian rice

Gomes, L. B., Ward, T. J., Badiale‐Furlong, E., Del Ponte, E. M.
Plant pathology 2015 v.64 no.4 pp. 980-987
15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium cortaderiae, Fusarium graminearum, aggression, agroecosystems, crops, deoxynivalenol, disease severity, genotype, genotyping, greenhouses, in vitro studies, inflorescences, nivalenol, pathogenicity, rice, seeds, species diversity, wheat, Asia, Brazil
This study aimed to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in rice seeds produced in southern Brazil. Four species and two trichothecene genotypes were detected among 89 FGSC isolates, based on a multilocus genotyping assay: F. asiaticum (69·6%) with the nivalenol (NIV) genotype, F. graminearum (14·6%) with the 15‐acetyldeoxynivalenol (ADON) genotype, and F. cortaderiae (14·6%) and F. meridionale (1·1%), both with the NIV genotype. Seven selected F. asiaticum isolates from rice produced NIV in rice‐based substrate in vitro, at levels ranging from 4·7 to 84·1 μg g⁻¹. Similarly, two F. graminearum isolates from rice produced mainly 15‐ADON (c. 15–41 μg g⁻¹) and a smaller amount of 3‐ADON (c. 6–12 μg g⁻¹). One F. meridionale and two F. cortaderiae isolates did not produce detectable levels of trichothecenes. Two F. asiaticum isolates from rice and two from wheat (from a previous study), and one F. graminearum isolate from wheat, were pathogenic to both crops at various levels of aggressiveness based on measures of disease severity in wheat spikes and rice kernel infection in a greenhouse assay. Fusarium asiaticum and the reference F. graminearum isolate from wheat produced NIV, and deoxynivalenol and acetylates, respectively, in the kernels of inoculated wheat heads. No trichothecene was produced in kernels from inoculated rice panicles by any of the isolates. These findings constitute the first report of FGSC composition in rice outside Asia, and confirm the dominance of F. asiaticum in rice agroecosystems.