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Chromium Reduction, Plant Growth-Promoting Potentials, and Metal Solubilizatrion by Bacillus sp. Isolated from Alluvial Soil

Wani, Parvaze Ahmad, Khan, Mohammad Saghir, Zaidi, Almas
Current microbiology 2007 v.54 no.3 pp. 237-243
Bacillus (bacteria), agar, alluvial soils, ammonia, chromium, crops, indole acetic acid, lead, pH, phosphorus, siderophores, solubilization, tryptophan, zinc
The plant growth-promoting potentials, production of siderophore and solubilization of insoluble phosphorus (P) and zinc and lead by the chromium (vi) -reducing Bacillus species, PSB 1, PSB 7, and PSB 10, was assessed both in the presence and absence of chromium under in vitro conditions. The Bacillus strains tolerated chromium up to the concentration of 500 (PSB1), 400 (PSB7), and 550 μg ml-¹ (PSB10), respectively, on nutrient agar plates. Bacillus sp. PSB 10 reduced Cr (vi) by 87% at pH 7, which was followed by Bacillus sp. PSB 1 (83%) and PSB 7 (74%) in nutrient broth after 120 h of incubation. A concentration of 50 μg ml-¹ of Cr (vi) was completely reduced by Bacillus sp. PSB 1 and PSB 10 (after 100 h) and PSB 7 (after 120 h). The Bacillus strains PSB 1, PSB 7, and PSB 10 produced 19.3, 17.7, and 17.4 μg ml-¹ of indole acetic acid, respectively, in luria bertani broth at 100 μg ml-¹ of tryptophan, which consistently decreased with an increase in chromium concentration. The Bacillus strains were positive for siderophore, HCN, and ammonia both in the absence and presence of chromium. The Bacillus strains solubilized 375 (PSB 1), 340 (PSB 7), and 379 (PSB 10) μg ml-¹ P, respectively, in Pikovskaya broth devoid of chromium. In contrast, chromium at 150 μg ml-¹ reduced the amount of P solubilized by 17 (PSB 1), 15 (PSB 7), and 9% (PSB 10) compared to control. The tested bacterial strains solubilized a considerable amount of zinc and lead in nutrient broth both in the absence and presence of chromium. Generally, the chromium reduction and the plant growth-promoting potentials of chromium-reducing Bacillus were strongly correlated at the tested concentration of chromium. The present observations demonstrated that the chromium-reducing, metal-solubilizing, and plant growth-promoting potentials of the Bacillus strains PSB1, PSB 7, and PSB10 were not adversely affected by the chromium application and, hence, may be applied for raising the productivity of crops under metal-contaminated soils.