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Cutting forces and chip formation revisited based on orthogonal cutting of Scots pine

Zhu, Zhaolong, Buck, Dietrich, Ekevad, Mats, Marklund, Birger, Guo, Xiaolei, Cao, Pingxiang, Zhu, Nanfeng
Holzforschung 2019 v.73 no.2 pp. 131-138
Pinus sylvestris, cutting, tungsten
The objective of this study was to understand better the cutting forces and chip formation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with different moisture contents (MCs) and machined in different cutting directions. To that end, an orthogonal cutting experiment was designed, in which Scots pine was intermittently machined using a tungsten carbide tool to produce chips. The cutting forces were measured and the chip shapes were quantitatively described. Four conclusions can be drawn: (1) with increasing MC, the average cutting forces initially decreased and then stabilized, while the angle between the direction of the main and the resultant force continuously decreased. (2) The average cutting forces in the 90°–0° cutting direction were lower than the same forces in the 90°–90° cutting direction. (3) During machining, the dynamic cutting forces fluctuated less in the 90°–0° case. However, the dynamic feeding forces showed a decreasing trend in both the 90°–0° and the 90°–90° cases. (4) The process applied produced granule chips and flow chips, while less curly flow chips with a higher radius of curvature were more easily produced from samples with high MCs in the 90°–0° cutting direction.