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AMPK and mTOR: sensors and regulators of immunometabolic changes during infection in the chicken

Kogut, Michael H., Genovese, Kenneth J., He, Haiqi, Arsenault, Ryan J.
Poultry science 2016 v.95 no.2 pp. 345-353
AMP-activated protein kinase, Salmonella Enteritidis, bacteria, bacterial shedding, broiler chickens, cecum, colonizing ability, critical control points, feces, glycolysis, hosts, immune system, immunity, inflammation, oxidative phosphorylation, phenotype, protein synthesis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, salmonellosis, signal transduction, therapeutics, tissues
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens, but the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of clinical disease, results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and can transmit infections to naive hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that facilitate this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are unknown. We have begun to concentrate on the convergence of metabolism and immune function as playing a major role in regulating the host responsiveness to infection. It is now recognized that the immune system monitors the metabolic state of tissues and responds by modulating metabolic function. The aim in this review is to summarize the literature that has defined a series of genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the regulatory host immune-metabolic signaling pathways in the local cecal microenvironment during the first 4 d following infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune-metabolism peptide arrays and quantitative real-time-PCR of cecal tissue during the early (4 to 48 h) and late stages (4 to 17 d) of a Salmonella infection in young broiler chickens, the local immunometabolic microenvironment has been ascertained. Distinct immune and metabolic pathways are altered between 2 to 4 d postinfection that dramatically changed the local immunometabolic environment. Thus, the tissue immunometabolic phenotype of the cecum plays a major role in the ability of the bacterium to establish a persistent cecal colonization. In general, our findings show that AMPK and mTOR are key players linking specific extracellular milieu and intracellular metabolism. Phenotypically, the early response (4 to 48 h) to Salmonella infection is pro-inflammatory, fueled by glycolysis and mTOR-mediated protein synthesis, whereas by the later phase (4 to 5 d), the local environment has undergone an immune-metabolic reprogramming to an antiinflammatory state driven by AMPK-directed oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, metabolism appears to provide a potential critical control point that can impact infection. Further understanding of metabolic control of immunity during infection should provide crucial information of the development of novel therapeutics based on metabolic modulators that enhance protection or inhibit infection.