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Responses of soil N transformations and N loss to three years of simulated N deposition in a temperate Korean pine plantation in northeast China
- Song, Lei, Zhang, Jinbo, Müller, Christoph, Jin, Guangze
- Applied soil ecology 2019
- Pinus koraiensis, ammonium, dissolved organic nitrogen, gas emissions, growing season, microorganisms, mineralization, nitrate reduction, nitrates, nitric oxide, nitrification, nitrous oxide, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, runoff, soil, stable isotopes, China
- Nitrogen (N) losses are related to N deposition and activity of microbes that affect N dynamics. However, the effects of N deposition on gross N dynamics and mechanisms of N losses are not fully understood. Here, we quantified N losses from runoff and gaseous N (NO, N2O) emissions, assessed gross N transformation rates using 15N tracing, and recorded microbe abundance using real-time PCR in a temperate Korean pine plantation treated with zero N (control), low-N (20 kg N ha−1 yr−1), moderate-N (40 kg N ha−1 yr−1) and high-N (80 kg N ha−1 yr−1). The results showed that total N loss (N2O, NO and surface runoff) during the growing season was higher with N addition, where it was 0.86 kg N ha−1 in control and 1.83 kg N ha−1 in the high-N treatment. NH4+ and DON losses from surface runoff and NO loss from gas emissions were higher with N addition, whereas gross N mineralization and autotrophic nitrification rates were lower. Gross mineral N immobilization and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium rates were very low, and immobilization of NH4+ and NO3− varied among the treatments. The contrast between stimulated mineral N losses and suppressed mineral N production processes (mineralization and nitrification) with N addition showed that greater mineral N losses were likely related to losses from recently added N, rather than from old N converted from the native N pool, as a result of mineralization and nitrification processes. Suppressed NH4+ and NO3− immobilizations in some treatments also contributed to greater N losses.