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A Code of Mono-phosphorylation Modulates the Function of RB

Sanidas, Ioannis, Morris, Robert, Fella, Katerina A., Rumde, Purva H., Boukhali, Myriam, Tai, Eric C., Ting, David T., Lawrence, Michael S., Haas, Wilhelm, Dyson, Nicholas J.
Molecular cell 2019
cell cycle, genes, neoplasms, oxidative phosphorylation, oxygen consumption, proteins, proteomics, transcription (genetics)
Hyper-phosphorylation of RB controls its interaction with E2F and inhibits its tumor suppressor properties. However, during G1 active RB can be mono-phosphorylated on any one of 14 CDK phosphorylation sites. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to profile protein complexes formed by each mono-phosphorylated RB isoform (mP-RB) and identified the associated transcriptional outputs. The results show that the 14 sites of mono-phosphorylation co-ordinate RB’s interactions and confer functional specificity. All 14 mP-RBs interact with E2F/DP proteins, but they provide different shades of E2F regulation. RB mono-phosphorylation at S811, for example, alters RB transcriptional activity by promoting its association with NuRD complexes. The greatest functional differences between mP-RBs are evident beyond the cell cycle machinery. RB mono-phosphorylation at S811 or T826 stimulates the expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes, increasing cellular oxygen consumption. These results indicate that RB activation signals are integrated in a phosphorylation code that determines the diversity of RB activity.