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Emissions of fine particulate nitrated phenols from residential coal combustion in China
- Lu, Chunying, Wang, Xinfeng, Li, Rui, Gu, Rongrong, Zhang, Yinxiao, Li, Weijun, Gao, Rui, Chen, Bing, Xue, Likun, Wang, Wenxing
- Atmospheric environment 2019 v.203 pp. 10-17
- briquettes, carbon, combustion, emissions, emissions factor, lignite, magnesium, particulates, phenols, China
- Nitrated phenols (NPs) are regarded as a major component of brown carbon and affect the earth environment. Previous studies have suggested that NPs in the atmosphere partially originate from coal combustion; however, the direct emissions have not been validated. In this study, the emissions of ten NPs from ten kinds of coal for residential use were investigated via laboratory combustion experiments in which PM2.5 samples were collected and analyzed by UHPLC-MS. The fine particulate NPs emitted from coal combustion were dominated by nitrocatechols and the methyl substituents under most conditions, while the emission profile of nitrated phenols varies with different rank of coals. Based on the emission ratios of NPs/PM2.5 obtained from this study and the PM2.5 emission factors in the literature, the emission factors of fine particulate NPs for chunks of lignite, bituminite, and anthracite and for briquettes of anthracite were calculated as 0.2–10.1 mg kg−1. According to the residential coal consumption in 30 provinces in China in 2016, the total emission of fine particulate NPs from the residential coal combustion was estimated to be 178 ± 42 Mg.