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Remodeling impacts of outlets on income of lower riparian
- Rizwan, Muhammad, Afzal, Muhammad, Chauhdary, Junaid Nawaz, Rehman, Waqar Ur
- Engineering in agriculture, environment and food 2019 v.12 no.2 pp. 244-249
- farmers, grain yield, groundwater, income, water distribution, water supply, Pakistan
- The enhancement in efficiency of water distribution system can provide water to farmers equally by controlling water loses. The main objective of this study was to quantify canal water distribution and its impact on income of the farmers in selected watercourses of 3-R distributary before and after the remodeling of outlets in district Bahawalnagar, Pakistan. The result showed that the water supply to the farmers at the tail reach was less than those at head and middle reaches of the watercourses. The tail end farmers had to spend more money to pump groundwater and the net income of the farmers decreased with increase in distance from the outlets before and after remodeling of the outlets. The net income of head, middle and tail reach farmers along the watercourses decreased from 20 to 25 percent and yield of wheat reduced approximately 30–40% after remodeling of the outlets. It was concluded that newly designed outlets did not show any improvement in distribution of canal water and this inequity of canal water distribution reduced the income of the farmers.