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Characteristics of palm mid-fractions produced from different fractionation paths and their potential usages
- Jin, Jun, Jie, Liang, Zheng, Liyou, Cheng, Min, Xie, Dan, Jin, Qingzhe, Wang, Xingguo
- International journal of food properties 2018 v.21 no.1 pp. 58-69
- campesterol, chocolate, cocoa butter, crystallization, fatty acid composition, fractionation, frying, gamma-tocopherol, iodine value, margarine, melting, melting point, oxidation, oxidative stability, palm oils, shortenings, stearin, thermal properties, triacylglycerols, weather
- Three palm mid-fraction (PMF) groups produced from different fractionation paths were analyzed in terms of the fat, triacylglycerol and sn-2 fatty acid compositions, thermal properties (melting and crystallization behaviors, and solid fat contents (SFCs)), micronutrient levels and oxidative stability indexes (OSIs) to achieve their sufficient utilization. PMF-A (iodine value (IV), 48.4 g/100 g) fractionated from palm olein contained 43.8% 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP) and 16.7% 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl-glycerol, showing soften properties (slip melting point (SMP), 27.6°C; SFC at 30°C, 2.2%) at hot weather. PMF-B (IV, 42.3 g/100g) obtained from palm stearin showed similar fat and triacylglycerol compositions as PMF-A, but the high 1,2,3-tripalmitoyl-glycerol level (6.2%) improves its thermal behaviors (SMP, 34.9°C; SFC at 30°C, 13.8%). The SFC profiles of PMF-A and PMF-B were comparable to those found in frozen and puff margarine shortenings. Furthermore, both of the PMF groups exhibited excellent OSIs (13.2 and 11.2 h, respectively) because of their high micronutrient levels (especially γ-tocopherol and campesterol). In general, γ-tocopherol and campesterol contribute to preventing lipids from oxidation under frying conditions. Therefore, PMF-A and PMF-B are recommended for manufacturing margarine shortenings and frying fasts. PMF-C (IV, 33.0 g/100g) produced from the additional fractionation of PMF-A or PMF-B contained the highest POP percentage (67.1%) and showed heat-resistant property (SMP, 31.8°C; SFC at 30°C, 22.4%). Its steep SFC profile was superior to that of cocoa butter, suggesting the fat is preferred in producing hard chocolate fats.