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Effects of water absorption of soybean seed on the quality of soymilk and the release of flavor compounds

Li, Xingfei, Liu, Xu, Hua, Yufei, Chen, Yeming, Kong, Xiangzhen, Zhang, Caimeng
RSC advances 2019 v.9 no.6 pp. 2906-2918
absorption, equations, flavor, flavor compounds, globulins, hexanols, odor compounds, pH, particle size, soaking, soybeans, soymilk, temperature, water uptake
The water absorption of soybeans during soaking is directly related to the quality characteristics and the flavor properties of soybeans for processing. In this paper, the effects of water absorption of soybean seed on the quality of soymilk and the release of flavor compounds were investigated during soaking at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 50 °C at different pH values. The results showed that the water absorption rate increased as the soaking temperature and pH increased, while the equilibrium value was relatively stable. Peleg's equation with good fitting of the absorption kinetics was used to predict the hydration characteristics of undehulled soybean. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS results showed that the major released proteins are basic 7S globulin, which is released in large amounts at high temperature. The water absorption of soybean seed significantly enhanced the extraction yields of protein, fat and solids of the prepared soymilk, and alkaline soaking pH further promoted the extraction of proteins and solids. A high soaking temperature can significantly decrease the required soaking time; however, it is unfavorable to the extraction yields of fat, proteins and solids, as well as the whiteness values and the particle sizes. The beany odor compounds of soymilk mainly consisted of hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-octene-3-ol, hexanol, and 2-pentylfuran, and their contents were positively correlated with soaking temperature. A good balance of soymilk quality and flavor compound release can be achieved with soaking conditions of 25 °C and pH 9.