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Circulation dynamics of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum in a poultry farm infested by Dermanyssus gallinae

Pugliese, N., Circella, E., Marino, M., De Virgilio, C., Cocciolo, G., Lozito, P., Cafiero, M. A., Camarda, A.
Medical and veterinary entomology 2019 v.33 no.1 pp. 162-170
Dermanyssus gallinae, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, antibodies, ectoparasites, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, farms, fowl typhoid, hens, mites, pathogens, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, vaccination
Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae, De Geer, 1778) is an ectoparasite of poultry, suspected to play a role as a vector of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Gallinarum. Despite an association between them being reported, the actual dynamics in field remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to confirm the interactions among mites, pathogen and chickens. The study was carried out in an industrial poultry farm infested by D. gallinae, during an outbreak of fowl typhoid. The presence of S. Gallinarum in mites was assessed and quantified by a semi‐nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real‐time PCR, respectively, in mites collected during two subsequent productive cycles and the sanitary break. The anti‐group D Salmonella antibodies were quantified by an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. During the outbreak and the sanitary break, S. Gallinarum was constantly present in mites. In the second cycle, scattered positivity was observed, although hens did not exhibit signs of fowl typhoid, as a result of the vaccination with BIO‐VAC SGP695 (Fatro, Ozzano Emilia Bo, Italy). The data strongly suggest that D. gallinae acts as reservoir of S. Gallinarum, thus allowing the pathogen to persist in farms. Furthermore, the present study has highlighted the interactions among D. gallinae, S. Gallinarum and hens with respect to enhancing the mite‐mediated circulation of S. Gallinarum in an infested poultry farm.