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Microbial transformation of chiral organohalides: Distribution, microorganisms and mechanisms

Lu, Qihong, Qiu, Lan, Yu, Ling, Zhang, Shangwei, de Toledo, Renata Alves, Shim, Hojae, Wang, Shanquan
Journal of hazardous materials 2019 v.368 pp. 849-861
DDT (pesticide), amino acids, bioactive properties, ecotoxicology, enantioselectivity, enzymes, hexabromocyclododecane, microorganisms, polychlorinated biphenyls
Chiral organohalides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) raise a significant concern in the environmental occurrence, fate and ecotoxicology due to their enantioselective biological effects. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview on enantioselective microbial transformation of the chiral organohalides. We firstly summarized worldwide field assessments of chiral organohalides in a variety of environmental matrices, which suggested the pivotal role of microorganisms in enantioselective transformation of chiral organohalides. Then, laboratory studies provided experimental evidences to further link enantioselective attenuation of chiral organohalides to specific functional microorganisms and enzymes, revealing mechanistic insights into the enantioselective microbial transformation processes. Particularly, a few amino acid residues in the functional enzymes could play a key role in mediating the enantioselectivity at the molecular level. Finally, major challenges and further developments toward an in-depth understanding of the enantioselective microbial transformation of chiral organohalides are identified and discussed.