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Mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol composition of dinoflagellates. VIII. Temperature effects and a perspective on the curious case of Karenia mikimotoi as a producer of the unusual, ‘green algal’ fatty acid hexadecatetraenoic acid [16:4(n-3)]

Leblond, Jeffrey D., McDaniel, Spencer L., Lowrie, Shelby D., Khadka, Manoj, Dahmen, Jeremy
European journal of phycology 2019 v.54 no.1 pp. 78-90
Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Karenia brevis, Karenia mikimotoi, algae, ancestry, fatty acid composition, fatty acids, galactolipids, photosynthesis, plastids, tandem mass spectrometry, temperature
Previous studies have shown that dinoflagellates with different plastid ancestries have distinct differences in the fatty acid compositions and regiochemistries of their chloroplast-associated galactolipids, mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG and DGDG, respectively), thus reflecting plastid origin as a major factor in plastid membrane composition. Specifically, dinoflagellates with aberrant plastids (e.g. Karenia brevis, Kryptoperidinium foliaceum and Lepidodinium chlorophorum) possess certain MGDG- and DGDG-associated fatty acids which are not found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (the largest group of photosynthetic dinoflagellates with a red algal plastid ancestry which is thought to be an evolutionary precursor to aberrant plastids), but which are common to other algal groups. For example, hexadecatetraenoic acid (16:4(n-3)) is common to green algae and is found in the MGDG and DGDG of L. chlorophorum, which agrees with its green algal plastid ancestry, while hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3) and hexadecadienoic acid (16:2) are found in the MGDG and DGDG of K. foliaceum, which agrees with its diatom plastid ancestry. Notably, 16:4 has been found by others in the total fatty acids and galactolipids of Karenia mikimotoi, but in no other examined members of the Kareniaceae (all of which have plastids of haptophyte origin). However, these findings lack information as to the regiochemistry of 16:4. We have utilized positive-ion electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and ESI/MS/MS to demonstrate that 16:4, which aside from L. chlorophorum is not found conclusively in the MGDG and DGDG of any other dinoflagellates examined to date irrespective of plastid ancestry, is found in K. mikimotoi as 18:5/16:4 (sn-1/sn-2 regiochemistry) MGDG and DGDG, and that its presence is not modulated (i.e. does not become more saturated) with an increase in growth temperature. Considering an aberrant pigment composition as described by others, we present a perspective where galactolipid-associated 16:4 in K. mikimotoi indicates a plastid ancestry more convoluted than for other members of the Kareniaceae.