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Exophiala angulospora infection in hatchery‐reared lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) broodstock
- Saraiva, Marcia, Beckmann, Max J., Pflaum, Sara, Pearson, Marianne, Carcajona, Daniel, Treasurer, James W., van West, Pieter
- Journal of fish diseases 2019 v.42 no.3 pp. 335-343
- Cylopterus lumpus, Exophiala, amphotericin B, breeding stock, control methods, fish, formalin, fungi, gills, hatcheries, host-pathogen relationships, hyphae, internal transcribed spacers, itraconazole, mortality, phylogeny, ribosomal DNA, spawning, temperature, Scotland
- Samples from moribund lumpfish were collected in a marine hatchery in Scotland in 2015. Black nodules were noted on the skin, and gills and fungal hyphae were extensively distributed in musculature and internal organs. Multifocal chronic inflammatory lesions displaced structures in all affected organs. Mortalities commenced on completion of spawning in May and were evenly distributed over the second year in the temperature range 11–15°C. The main systemic infection causing agent was initially identified based on morphological characteristics as an Exophiala species. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ITS regions of the isolates were subsequently sequenced confirming the isolates belonged to Exophiala genus. All isolates fell in a single phylogenetic cluster, which is represented by Exophiala angulospora. Fish were treated with either formalin or Bronopol or a combination of both, but there was no effect on the pattern or numbers of mortalities. Isolates were also tested against three different concentrations of Latrunculin A, Amphotericin B and Itraconazole with no success. It is of utmost importance to increase the knowledge on pathogen–host interactions to successfully develop sustainable control methods.