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Piscine orthoreovirus‐3 is prevalent in wild seatrout (Salmo trutta L.) in Norway

Garseth, Åse Helen, Moldal, Torfinn, Gåsnes, Siri Kristine, Hjortaas, Monika Jankowska, Sollien, Vegard Pedersen, Gjevre, Anne‐Gerd
Journal of fish diseases 2019 v.42 no.3 pp. 391-396
Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss, RNA, Salmo salar, Salmo trutta, Salvelinus alpinus, anadromous fish, freshwater, indigenous species, marine environment, nucleotide sequences, pathogens, polymerase chain reaction, rivers, salmon, surveys, trout, viruses, Chile, Norway
In 2017, a PCR‐based survey for Piscine orthoreovirus‐3 (PRV‐3) was conducted in wild anadromous and non‐anadromous salmonids in Norway. In seatrout (anadromous Salmo trutta L.), the virus was present in 16.6% of the fish and in 15 of 21 investigated rivers. Four of 221 (1.8%) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) from three of 15 rivers were also PCR‐positive, with Ct‐values indicating low amounts of viral RNA. All anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.) were PCR‐negative. Neither non‐anadromous trout (brown trout) nor landlocked salmon were PRV‐3 positive. Altogether, these findings suggest that in Norway PRV‐3 is more prevalent in the marine environment. In contrast, PRV‐3 is present in areas with intensive inland farming in continental Europe. PRV‐3 genome sequences from Norwegian seatrout grouped together with sequences from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) in Norway and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) in Chile. At present, the origin of the virus remains unknown. Nevertheless, the study highlights the value of safeguarding native fish by upholding natural and artificial barriers that hinder introduction and spread, on a local or national scale, of alien fish species and their pathogens. Accordingly, further investigations of freshwater reservoirs and interactions with farmed salmonids are warranted.