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Nocturnal Hypoglycemic Alarm Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: In Vivo Studies with a Rat Animal Model

Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R., Arnold, Mark A., Small, Gary W.
Analytical chemistry 2019 v.91 no.3 pp. 1855-1862
absorbance, algorithms, animal models, databases, discriminant analysis, glucose, hypoglycemia, monitoring, near-infrared spectroscopy, rats
A noninvasive method for detecting episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia is demonstrated with in vivo measurements made with a rat animal model. Employing spectra collected from the near-infrared combination region of 4000–5000 cm–¹, piecewise linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) is used to classify spectra into alarm and nonalarm data classes on the basis of whether or not they correspond to glucose concentrations below a user-defined hypoglycemic threshold. A reference spectrum and corresponding glucose concentration are acquired at the start of the monitoring period, and spectra are then collected continuously and converted to absorbance units relative to the initial reference spectrum. The resulting differential spectra correspond to differential glucose concentrations that reflect the differences in concentration between each spectrum and the reference. Given an alarm threshold (e.g., 3.0 mM), a database of calibration differential spectra can be partitioned into two groups containing spectra above and below the threshold. A classification model is then computed with PLDA. The resulting model can be applied to the differential spectra collected during the monitoring period in order to identify spectra whose corresponding glucose concentrations lie in the hypoglycemic range. In this work, the alarm algorithm was tested in two single-day studies performed with anesthetized rats. Glucose concentrations spanned the range of 1.6 to 13.5 mM (29 to 244 mg/dL). For both rats, the alarm algorithm performed well. On average, 87.5% of alarm events were correctly detected, and the occurrence of false alarms was 7.2%. False alarms were restricted to times when the glucose concentrations were very close to the alarm threshold rather than at random times, thus demonstrating the potential of the approach for practical use.