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Anti-leishmanial effect of spiro dihydroquinoline-oxindoles on volume regulation decrease and sterol biosynthesis of Leishmania braziliensis

Leañez, Jacques, Nuñez, Jorge, García-Marchan, Yael, Sojo, Felipe, Arvelo, Francisco, Rodriguez, Daniel, Buscema, Ignacio, Alvarez-Aular, Alvaro, Bello Forero, Josué S., Kouznetsov, Vladímir V., Serrano-Martín, Xenón
Experimental parasitology 2019 v.198 pp. 31-38
Leishmania braziliensis, amastigotes, antileishmanial properties, biochemical pathways, biosynthesis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, etiological agents, mammals, parasites, promastigotes, quinoline, squalene monooxygenase, sterols, South America
Diverse spiro dihydroquinoline-oxindoles (JS series) were prepared using the BF3•OEt2-catalyzed imino Diels-Alder reaction between ketimine-isatin derivatives and trans-isoeugenol. Ten spiro-oxiindole derivatives were selected and evaluated at different stages of the life cycle of Leishmania braziliensis parasites, responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. Among them, the 8′-ethyl-4‘-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3′-methyl-3′,4′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[indoline-3,2′-quinolin]-2-one called JS87 was able to inhibit the growth of promastigotes without affecting the mammalian cells viability, and to decrease the number of intracellular amastigotes of L. braziliensis. This spiro compound was found to act through the alteration of parasite internal regulation by disrupting the regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and to affect the sterol biosynthetic pathway at level of squalene epoxidase (SE) enzyme. These results revealed that the spiro annulation between quinoline and oxindole scaffolds enhances the anti-leishmanial activity, and could assist in the development of potent quinoline-oxindole hybrids against Leishmania braziliensis, the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America.