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High throughput bar adsorptive microextraction: A novel cost-effective tool for monitoring benzodiazepines in large number of biological samples

Ahmad, S.M., Nogueira, J.M.F.
Talanta 2019 v.199 pp. 195-202
blood serum, cost effectiveness, decision support systems, desorption, diazepam, high performance liquid chromatography, microextraction, monitoring, urine
In this work, we propose an innovative high throughput (HT) apparatus using the bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) technique, which enables the simultaneous enrichment of up to 100 samples. This novel configuration was combined with microliquid desorption and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection to monitor trace levels of eight benzodiazepines (diazepam, prazepam, bromazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, temazepam and loflazepate) in biological samples. The proposed methodology was fully developed, optimized and validated, resulting in suitable intraday and interday precision (RSD ≤ 15%), with recovery yields ranging from 33.0% to 104.5%. The lower limits of quantification were between 20.0 and 100.0 µg L−1, using 1.0 mL of urine and 0.5 mL of plasma or serum samples. The application of the proposed methodology to real matrices resulted in average sample preparation time of around 2 min per sample, demonstrating that it is user-friendly, cost-effective and a rapid decision-making tool, whenever large number of samples are involved.