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Biodegradation potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by immobilized Klebsiella sp. in soil washing effluent

Xu, Xiaoyi, Zhou, Hang, Chen, Xi, Wang, Bin, Jin, Zhaoxia, Ji, Fangying
Chemosphere 2019 v.223 pp. 140-147
Klebsiella, adhesion, adsorption, alginates, aluminum oxide, biodegradation, biomass, crosslinking, mass transfer, phenanthrenes, physicochemical properties, polysorbates, polyvinyl alcohol, scanning electron microscopy, soil washing, surface area, toxicity
A strain KL (Klebsiella sp.), with a high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation efficiency, was isolated and purified. Immobilization of strain KL using a boric acid-CaCl2 cross-linking method based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate (SA)-nano alumina (ALNPs) composite was investigated for removal of phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), and pyrene (PYR) in soil washing effluent. The concentration of PVA, SA, and ALNPs in immobilized beads had significant effects on the physicochemical properties and biodegradation performance. When beads had a PVA, SA, and ALNPs content of 10% (w/v), 0.8% (w/v), and 0.7% (w/v), and the initial biomass dosage was 10% (v/v), the biodegradation efficiency and mass transfer performance of the immobilized beads were optimal with the specific surface area of 13.3971 m2/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the surface of immobilized beads was dense. The growth and adhesion of cells inside the beads were adequate, and pores of the beads were abundant and irregularly staggered. The immobilization method was successfully applied to the treatment of the three PAHs in soil washing effluent. Adsorption of beads contributed to PAHs removal in the initial stage of degradation. Higher residual concentrations of Tween 80 in the soil washing effluent have toxic effects on strain KL growth and reduce the PAHs degradation capacity. Tween 80 of 2500 mg/L was proper conditions for PAHs biodegradation efficiency. Compared to freely suspended KL cells, the removal rates of PHE, FLA, and PYR using the immobilization method on the 30th day were increased by 15.91%, 17.07%, and 19.08%, respectively.