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Levels of methyleugenol and eugenol in instant herbal beverages available on the Indonesian market and related risk assessment
- Suparmi, Suparmi, Ginting, Alex Junico, Mariyam, Siti, Wesseling, Sebastiaan, Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.
- Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.125 pp. 467-478
- adults, beverages, children, chronic exposure, eugenol, human health, markets, models, risk, risk assessment, risk management, toxicology, Indonesia
- The presence and accompanying risks of methyleugenol and eugenol in herbal beverages available on the Indonesian market were evaluated. Methyleugenol was detected in 49 out of 114 samples, at levels amounting to 2.6–443.7 μg/g, while 4 samples contained eugenol at 21.4–101.2 μg/g. The EDI resulting from drinking these preparations amounted to 0.1–51.2 μg/kg bw/day and 1.1–3.3 μg/kg bw/day, respectively for samples targeted at adults and children. A BMDL10 value of 22.2 mg/kg bw/day for methyleugenol was defined using literature data and model averaging. MOE values were below 10,000 for 46 samples (40.4%), indicating a priority for risk management when assuming daily lifelong consumption, while the EDI for 4 samples containing eugenol did not exceed the ADI of 2.5 mg/kg bw thus did not raise a concern for human health. Using Haber's rule to correct for less than lifetime exposure, consumption of methyleugenol via these beverages would be of low concern when consumed for less than 2 weeks/year during a lifetime. This conclusion holds for herbal beverages collected by targeted sampling, not for all herbal beverages on the Indonesian market. The study provides data that can support establishment of a maximum permitted level (MPL) for methyleugenol in herbal beverages in Indonesia.