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The Effect of Walnut Flour on the Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Wheat Bread
- Almoraie, Noha M.
- International Journal of Food Sciences 2019 v.2019
- alpha-linolenic acid, breads, carbohydrates, drying, linoleic acid, loaves, ovens, physical properties, proximate composition, sensory properties, shelling, sieving, soaking, walnuts, wheat, wheat flour
- The study was carried out to demonstrate the effect of walnut flour enhancement on the physical, nutritional, and sensory quality of bread. Walnut flour was prepared by soaking, deshelling, oven drying, and sieving whole walnuts. The wheat flour was supplemented with walnut flour by 0, 20, 30, 40, and 50% of the total amount. Standard procedures were taken to estimate the proximate composition of wheat and walnut flour and bread samples. A comparison between the control and supplemented bread was made, where the physical characteristics (weight, volume, and specific volume) and sensory quality were checked. The enhanced bread, where the percentage was between 20 and 50%, appeared to have a significant increase in protein, fat, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid and a decrease in carbohydrate and fibre values. Increased walnut flour replacement showed that physical properties, loaf volume and specific loaf volume, have declined. The sensory attributes between the unsupplemented and supplemented bread showed major differences. As an outcome, substituting 30% walnut flour gave the best overall quality of bread acceptability.