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Reverse metabolic engineering in lager yeast: impact of the NADH/NAD+ ratio on acetaldehyde production during the brewing process
- Xu, Xin, Wang, Jinjing, Bao, Min, Niu, Chengtuo, Liu, Chunfeng, Zheng, Feiyun, Li, Yongxian, Li, Qi
- Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2019 v.103 no.2 pp. 869-880
- NAD (coenzyme), acetaldehyde, amino acid metabolism, beers, brewers yeast, brewing, cofactor engineering, fermentation, off flavors, tricarboxylic acid cycle
- Acetaldehyde is synthesized by yeast during the main fermentation period of beer production, which causes an unpleasant off-flavor. Therefore, there has been extensive effort toward reducing acetaldehyde to obtain a beer product with better flavor and anti-staling ability. In this study, we discovered that acetaldehyde production in beer brewing is closely related with the intracellular NADH equivalent regulated by the citric acid cycle. However, there was no significant relationship between acetaldehyde production and amino acid metabolism. A reverse engineering strategy to increase the intracellular NADH/NAD⁺ ratio reduced the final acetaldehyde production level, and vice versa. This work offers new insight into acetaldehyde metabolism and further provides efficient strategies for reducing acetaldehyde production by the regulating the intracellular NADH/NAD⁺ ratio through cofactor engineering.