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Effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carbofuran on metabolism in Astyanax ribeirae, a native species

Barbieri, Edison, Ferrarini, Alessandra Maria Tegon, Rezende, Karina Fernandes Oliveira, Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro, Alves, Oswaldo Luiz
Fish physiology and biochemistry 2019 v.45 no.1 pp. 417-426
Astyanax, ammonia, carbofuran, carbon nanotubes, excretion, fish, indigenous species, industry, metabolism, oxygen consumption, toxicity
The study of the toxic effect of carbofuran and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on Astyanax ribeirae metabolism is of paramount importance due to the increasing use of this pesticide in agriculture and in the production of nanotubes within the material industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of carbofuran, MWCNT, and the combination of these compounds on specific oxygen consumption and excretion of ammonia in A. ribeirae. Therefore, 65 fish were divided into three groups of treatments at varying concentrations: carbofuran (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/L), MWCNT (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L), and 0.5 mg/L of MWCNT added to carbofuran concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/L). The average specific oxygen consumption in the groups exposed to carbofuran, compared to the control, increased 73.49% at the 0.01 mg/L concentration and decreased 63.86% and 91.57% with treatments of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. For groups exposed to the MWCNT, there was an 83.91% drop with the 1.0 mg/L treatment, and the carbofuran + MWCNT groups recorded a decrease of 71.09%, 92.77%, and 93.98% at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. In relation to specific ammonia excretion, in groups exposed to carbofuran compared to the control, there was an increase of 134.37% and 200% with the 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L treatments, respectively. The group exposed to carbofuran + MWCNT experienced a decrease of 60% and 80% with treatments of 0.1 mg/L carbofuran + 0.5 mg/L MWCNT and 0.5 mg/L carbofuran + 0.5 mg/L MWCNT, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that carbofuran + MWCNT interact, increasing the effects in Astyanax sp.