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Topical application of cashew gum or chlorhexidine gel reduces overexpression of proinflammatory genes in experimental periodontitis

Ferreira-Fernandes, Hygor, Barros, Marcos Aurélio L., Souza Filho, Manoel D., Medeiros, Jand Venes R., Vasconcelos, Daniel Fernando P., Silva, Durcilene A., Leódido, Ana Carolina M., Silva, Felipe Rodolfo P., França, Luiz Felipe C., Di Lenardo, David, Yoshioka, France Keiko N., Rey, Juan Antonio, Burbano, Rommel R., Pinto, Giovanny R.
International journal of biological macromolecules 2019 v.128 pp. 934-940
Anacardium occidentale, anti-inflammatory activity, cashew gum, chlorhexidine, gels, gene overexpression, genes, gingiva, inflammation, interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, interleukin-4, models, periodontitis, rats, topical application, transcription (genetics), transforming growth factor beta 1
This study aimed to explore the effect of topically administering an orabase gel containing cashew gum (CG), a complex polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale L., on the transcription of important proinflammatory (COX-2, NOS-2, INF-γ, OSCAR, and MYD88) and anti-inflammatory genes (IL-10, IL-4, and TGFβ1) in the gingival tissues of rats with ligature-induced periodontitis, compared to the effect observed upon topically applying a well-known antibiofilm agent (chlorhexidine) under the same experimental conditions. The gene expression profile in the gingival tissues of rats with periodontitis treated with CG did not statistically significantly differ from that observed in the group of animals treated with chlorhexidine. Results showed that CG is able to attenuate general inflammation in the periodontium by reducing the transcription of proinflammatory mediators in a MYD88-independent manner, and not by inducing the expression of anti-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CG and chlorhexidine treatment reduced significantly the gene overexpression (COX-2, NOS-2, INF-γ, OSCAR, and TGFβ1) in the model of ligature-induced periodontitis.