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Sex hormones and oxidative stress mediated phthalate-induced effects in prostatic enlargement
- Chang, Wei-Hsiang, Tsai, Yuh-Shyan, Wang, Jia-Yu, Chen, Hsiu-Ling, Yang, Wen-Horng, Lee, Ching-Chang
- Environment international 2019 v.126 pp. 184-192
- aromatase, blood, dihydrotestosterone, elderly, estradiol, guidelines, hyperplasia, inducible nitric oxide synthase, men, metabolites, oxidative stress, pathophysiology, patients, phthalates, prostate-specific antigen, reactive oxygen species, regression analysis, secretion, testes, urinary tract, urine, Taiwan
- Prostatic enlargement might affect up to 30% of men and can cause signs and symptoms in the lower urinary tract in the elderly. Imbalanced estrogen and androgen secretions are important in prostatic physiopathology. Phthalates-environmental endocrine disruptors-affect androgen secretion and disrupt sexual organs, including testes and the prostate, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Using European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines, we recruited from urology clinics in southern Taiwan 207 elderly men diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic enlargement between 2015 and 2017. We took blood and urine samples from all patients on the same day. We used multivariate linear regression, associations, and potential interactions after we had measured and analyzed oxidative stress (OS) markers, steroidal hormones, and 11 urinary phthalate metabolites, and then we adjusted for confounders. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite levels, particularly urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, were positively associated with androgen, estrogen, hormone ratios, inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and prostate volume (PV) (p < 0.05). PV and PSA were positively associated with androgen, estrogen, hormone ratios and OS markers (p < 0.05). The estimated percentages of exposure to phthalates in prostatic enlargement mediated by androgen, estrogen, and OS markers ranged from 3.5% to 63.1%. Exposure to DEHP promoted the progress of BPH by increasing dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E2), the converted enzymes aromatase and 5α reductase, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (8-OHdG and iNOS) production. Sex hormones and OS might be important hyperplasia-promoters after a patient has been exposed to phthalates, especially to DEHP.