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Cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) develops metabolic disorders associated with visceral adipose inflammation and fatty pancreas without obesity

Nakamura, Teppei, Ichii, Osamu, Irie, Takao, Kouguchi, Hirokazu, Sotozaki, Kozue, Chihara, Masataka, Sunden, Yuji, Nagasaki, Ken-ichi, Tatsumi, Osamu, Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali, Kon, Yasuhiro
Cell and tissue research 2019 v.375 no.2 pp. 483-492
Sigmodon hispidus, adipocytes, animal models, blood serum, diet, females, histopathology, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperplasia, hypertension, inflammation, insulin, insulin resistance, islets of Langerhans, liver, macrophages, males, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, obesity, oxidative stress, visceral fat, white adipose tissue
Obesity induces metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases and has become a global health concern. Recent studies imply that fat accumulation in nonadipose tissue correlates with metabolic disorders. However, there are no suitable animal models to evaluate this phenomenon. This study investigated the characteristics of metabolic disorders found in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Blood biochemical examinations revealed that cotton rats, predominantly males, developed hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia when fed a normal diet. The islets increased in size through β-cell hyperplasia, which was associated with serum insulin level in both sexes, strongly indicating insulin resistance. In male cotton rats, oxidative stress was observed in β cells, and macrophage infiltration into the visceral white adipose tissue was reported, both of which were associated with serum insulin level without visceral obesity. In contrast, female cotton rats developed hyperinsulinemia without histopathological changes that were reported in males. Adipocytes were found to be accumulated in the pancreas but not in the liver of both sexes during aging. Pancreatic fat accumulation was associated with the serum insulin level only in females. Taken together, cotton rats developed metabolic disorders associated with visceral fat inflammation in the absence of obesity. In addition, pancreatic ectopic fat may also be related to the early stages of these conditions. Thus, the cotton rat may serve as a novel and useful model for metabolic disorders characterized by visceral adipose inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation in the pancreas without obesity.