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A new device for deep cervical artificial insemination in gilts reduces the number of sperm per dose without impairing final reproductive performance
- Llamas-López, Pedro J., López-Úbeda, Rebeca, López, Gustavo, Antinoja, Emily, García-Vázquez, Francisco A.
- Journal of animal science and biotechnology 2019 v.10 no.1 pp. 11
- artificial insemination, catheters, cervix, estrus, farms, gilts, industry, insemination, piglets, pregnancy, reproductive performance, spermatozoa, uterus
- BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of a new artificial insemination (AI) device specifically designed for gilts (Deep cervical AI, Dp-CAI) by means of which the sperm is deposited deeply in the cervix (8 cm more cranial than in traditional cervical insemination-CAI). New AI techniques have arisen in recent decades in the porcine industry, such as post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI), which involves depositing the sperm in the body of the uterus [through a catheter (outer tube)-cannula (inner tube)] rather than by CAI. Although the PCAI method has been successfully applied in farm conditions to reduce sperm doses without impairing the reproductive performance, this technique has limitations in gilts mainly because of the difficulty involved in introducing the inner cannula through the cranial part of the cervix. For this reason, the Dp-CAI method described herein may be considered as an alternative to CAI and PCAI methods in gilts. RESULTS: Gilts were divided in two experimental groups: 1) Dp-CAI: gilts (n = 1166) inseminated using 1.5 × 10⁹ sperm/45 mL; 2) CAI (as a control group): gilts (n = 130) inseminated using 2.5 × 10⁹ sperm/85 mL. The Dp-CAI method was successfully applied in 88.90% of the gilts, with no differences detected between gilts with 1 or 2 previous oestrus cycles, although the catheter could be introduced more deeply in 2 oestrus gilts (P < 0.05). As the length of the insemination device that could not be introduced increased (at the moment of insemination), so the success rate of the Dp-CAI device fell, as did the total number of piglets born. When the reproductive output in CAI and Dp-CAI was compared, none of the parameters analysed [pregnancy and farrowing rates (%), and number of piglets born (total and live)] showed significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the Dp-CAI technique provides a new AI method as an alternative to CAI and PCAI for pigs. The device, especially designed for gilts, was used with a high degree of success reducing conventional sperm doses without impairing reproductive parameters.