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Applying the adverse outcome pathway (aop) for food sensitization to support in vitro testing strategies

Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo,, Sara Benedé,, Antunes, Celia M., Bavaro, Simona L., Bouchaud, Grégory, Costa, Ana, Denery-Papini, Sandra, Díaz-Perales, Araceli, Garrido-Arandia, Maria, Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija, Hayen, Simone, Martínez-Blanco, Monica, Molina, Elena, Monaci, Linda, Pieters, Raymond H.H., Villemin, Clelia, Wichers, Harry J., Wróblewska, Barbara, Willemsen, Linette E.M., Roggen, Erwin L., van Bilsen, Jolanda H.M.
Trends in food science & technology 2019
B-lymphocytes, adaptive immunity, adverse outcome pathways, animal use replacement, dietary nutrient sources, dietary protein, food allergies, in vitro studies, innate immunity, markets, proteins
Before introducing proteins from new or alternative dietary sources into the market, a compressive risk assessment including food allergic sensitization should be carried out in order to ensure their safety. We have recently proposed the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept to structure the current mechanistic understanding of the molecular and cellular pathways evidenced to drive IgE-mediated food allergies. This AOP framework offers the biological context to collect and structure existing in vitro methods and to identify missing assays to evaluate sensitizing potential of food proteins.In this review, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of available in vitro approaches for assessing the sensitizing potential of food proteins, including their strengths and limitations. These approaches are structured by their potential to evaluate the molecular initiating and key events driving food sensitization.The application of the AOP framework offers the opportunity to anchor existing testing methods to specific building blocks of the AOP for food sensitization. In general, in vitro methods evaluating mechanisms involved in the innate immune response are easier to address than assays addressing the adaptive immune response due to the low precursor frequency of allergen-specific T and B cells. Novel ex vivo culture strategies may have the potential to become useful tools for investigating the sensitizing potential of food proteins. When applied in the context of an integrated testing strategy, the described approaches may reduce, if not replace, current animal testing approaches.