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Grain filling pattern of Hordeum vulgare as affected by salicylic acid and salt stress

Pirasteh-Anosheh, Hadi, Emam, Yahya, Pessarakli, Mohammad
Journal of plant nutrition 2019 v.42 no.3 pp. 278-286
Hordeum vulgare, barley, filling period, flowering, foliar application, growing season, irrigation, salicylic acid, saline soils, salinity, salt stress, starch
Although application of salicylic acid (SA) to various plants grown on saline soils has been examined adequately, the effect of SA on changes during grain filling period has not been studied in details. In this 2-year field study, the grain-filling pattern of barley has been monitored as affected by different SA concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mM) under varied irrigation salinity levels (2 and 12 dSm⁻¹) during 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons. In both years, total soluble carbohydrates (TSC) increased up to 15 days after anthesis (DAA) and then decreased until the end of the grain-filling period. However, starch content (SC) and the mean grain weight (MGW) increased form the first sampling, and such increase was substantial between 15 and 25 DAA. The grain growth rate (GGR) and the absolute grain growth rate (AGGR) were enhanced up to 20 DAA and then were reduced until 30 DAA. The grain-filling pattern changed by salt stress, so that TSC was greater for the salt stressed plants from 15 or 10 DAA in the first and the second years, respectively. Throughout the grain-filling period, SC, MGW, and AGGR were lower under saline conditions in both years. Application of SA increased TSC, SC, MGW, GGR, and AGGR from 15 to 20 DAA, however, the effect of SA was obvious earlier under saline than the non-saline conditions. Generally, it can be concluded that SA foliar application might increase grain weight through modulating the negative impact of salt stress on carbohydrate and starch contents. It also appeared that the effect of SA was obvious earlier under salt stress conditions.