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Secondary cell wall biosynthesis

Zhong, Ruiqin, Cui, Dongtao, Ye, Zheng‐Hua
Thenew phytologist 2019 v.221 no.4 pp. 1703-1723
acetylation, biosynthesis, cell walls, cellulose, cellulose microfibrils, cellulose synthase, genes, glucomannans, lignin, plasma membrane, tracheary elements, xylan
Contents Summary 1703 I. Introduction 1703 II. Cellulose biosynthesis 1705 III. Xylan biosynthesis 1709 IV. Glucomannan biosynthesis 1713 V. Lignin biosynthesis 1714 VI. Concluding remarks 1717 Acknowledgements 1717 References 1717 SUMMARY: Secondary walls are synthesized in specialized cells, such as tracheary elements and fibers, and their remarkable strength and rigidity provide strong mechanical support to the cells and the plant body. The main components of secondary walls are cellulose, xylan, glucomannan and lignin. Biochemical, molecular and genetic studies have led to the discovery of most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components. Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthase complexes in the plasma membrane and the recent success of in vitro synthesis of cellulose microfibrils by a single recombinant cellulose synthase isoform reconstituted into proteoliposomes opens new doors to further investigate the structure and functions of cellulose synthase complexes. Most genes involved in the glycosyl backbone synthesis, glycosyl substitutions and acetylation of xylan and glucomannan have been genetically characterized and the biochemical properties of some of their encoded enzymes have been investigated. The genes and their encoded enzymes participating in monolignol biosynthesis and modification have been extensively studied both genetically and biochemically. A full understanding of how secondary wall components are synthesized will ultimately enable us to produce plants with custom‐designed secondary wall composition tailored to diverse applications.