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TGACG‐BINDING FACTORs (TGAs) and TGA‐interacting CC‐type glutaredoxins modulate hyponastic growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

Li, Ning, Muthreich, Martin, Huang, Li‐Jun, Thurow, Corinna, Sun, Tongjun, Zhang, Yuelin, Gatz, Christiane
Thenew phytologist 2019 v.221 no.4 pp. 1906-1918
Arabidopsis thaliana, genome, hyponasty, mutants, protein-protein interactions, proteins
TGACG‐BINDING FACTORs (TGAs) control the developmental or defense‐related processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the functions of at least TGA2 and PERIANTHIA (PAN) can be repressed by interacting with CC‐type glutaredoxins, which have the potential to control the redox state of target proteins. As TGA1 can be redox modulated in planta, we analyzed whether some of the 21 CC‐type glutaredoxins (ROXYs) encoded in the Arabidopsis genome can influence TGA1 activity in planta and whether the redox active cysteines of TGA1 are functionally important. We show that the tga1 tga4 mutant and plants ectopically expressing ROXY8 or ROXY9 are impaired in hyponastic growth. As expression of ROXY8 and ROXY9 is activated upon transfer of plants from hyponasty‐inducing low light to normal light, they might interfere with the growth‐promoting function of TGA1/TGA4 to facilitate reversal of hyponastic growth. The redox‐sensitive cysteines of TGA1 are not required for induction or reversal of hyponastic growth. TGA1 and TGA4 interact with ROXYs 8, 9, 18, and 19/GRX480, but ectopically expressed ROXY18 and ROXY19/GRX480 do not interfere with hyponastic growth. Our results therefore demonstrate functional specificities of individual ROXYs for distinct TGAs despite promiscuous protein–protein interactions and point to different repression mechanisms, depending on the TGA/ROXY combination.