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Retrograde signalling as an informant of circadian timing

Jones, Matthew A.
Thenew phytologist 2019 v.221 no.4 pp. 1749-1753
biochemical pathways, byproducts, chloroplasts, gene expression, metabolism, mitochondria, photoreceptors, plant development, signal transduction, temperature
Contents Summary 1749 I. The circadian system is responsive to environmental change 1749 II. Photoassimilates regulate circadian timing 1750 III. Retrograde signals contribute to circadian timing 1750 IV. Conclusions 1752 Acknowledgements 1752 References 1752 SUMMARY: The circadian system comprises interlocking transcriptional–translational feedback loops that regulate gene expression and consequently modulate plant development and physiology. In order to maximize utility, the circadian system is entrained by changes in temperature and light, allowing endogenous rhythms to be synchronized with both daily and seasonal environmental change. Although a great deal of environmental information is decoded by a suite of photoreceptors, it is also becoming apparent that changes in cellular metabolism also contribute to circadian timing, through either the stimulation of metabolic pathways or the accumulation of metabolic intermediates as a consequence of environmental stress. As the source of many of these metabolic byproducts, mitochondria and chloroplasts have begun to be viewed as environmental sensors, and rapid advancement of this field is revealing the complex web of signalling pathways initiated by organelle perturbation. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of how this metabolic regulation influences circadian timing.