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Valorization of Capia Pepperseed Flour-I: Spreadable New Products Development
- Bostanci, Hüseyin, Ok, Selçuk, Yilmaz, Emin
- Waste and biomass valorization 2019 v.10 no.3 pp. 681-690
- acidity, ambient temperature, antioxidant activity, arginine, beta-sitosterol, calcium, campesterol, chocolate liquor, citric acid, color, crystallization, flour, glutamic acid, histidine, ingredients, lecithins, leucine, linoleic acid, lysine, magnesium, minerals, molasses, new products, odors, oils, oleic acid, palmitic acid, peroxide value, phenolic compounds, plastics, potassium, potassium sorbate, product development, proline, protein content, sodium, sugars, thermal analysis
- The aim of this study was to utilize pepperseed flour in spreadable new product development. Two formulations, chocolate type and molasses type, were evaluated. Both formulations included 23.67 and 30.11% pepperseed flour, chocolate liquor or molasses as aroma source, sugar, palm oil, citric acid, potassium sorbate and lecithin as the ingredients. While ash and protein contents were similar, moisture and oil contents were different. Oil separation was observed only in chocolate type. Free acidity and peroxide values were low and below the limits. Some color differences were existed. Total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were higher in molasses type. Thermal analysis showed that both products were smooth and plastic at room temperature, and crystallizes only below fridge temperatures. In both products, linoleic (43–47%), palmitic (23–24%) and oleic (21–25%) acids were the main fatty acids, together with β-sitosterol (2200–2500 mg/kg), campesterol (350–600 mg/kg), and Δ5-avenasterol (230–550 mg/kg). Also 735.83 and 493.49 mg/kg total tocols were determined, respectively. Sixteen amino acids were quantified in samples, and glutamic acid, leucine, arginine and lysine in chocolate type, and glutamic acid, histidine, leucine and proline in molasses type were in higher concentrations. There were ten minerals quantified, and K, Na, Ca, and Mg were in higher amounts. This study proved that pepperseeds can be valorized in production of healthy, nutritious new products with minimal processing.