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Recent research progress on bio‐oil conversion into bio‐fuels and raw chemicals: a review

Valle, Beatriz, Remiro, Aingeru, García‐Gómez, Naiara, Gayubo, Ana G, Bilbao, Javier
Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology 2019 v.94 no.3 pp. 670-689
aromatic compounds, biofuels, biomass, catalysts, catalytic cracking, condensation reactions, cracking, esterification, fluidized beds, lignocellulose, pyrolysis, raw materials
Recent advances in lignocellulosic biomass valorization for producing fuels and commodities (olefins and BTX aromatics) are gathered in this paper, with a focus on the conversion of bio‐oil (produced by fast pyrolysis of biomass). The main valorization routes are: (i) conditioning of bio‐oil (by esterification, aldol condensation, ketonization, in situ cracking, and mild hydrodeoxygenation) for its use as a fuel or stable raw material for further catalytic processing; (ii) production of fuels by deep hydrodeoxygenation; (iii) ex situ catalytic cracking (in line) of the volatiles produced in biomass pyrolysis, aimed at the selective production of olefins and aromatics; (iv) cracking of raw bio‐oil in units designed with specific objectives concerning selectivity; and (v) processing in fluidized bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units. This review deals with the technological evolution of these routes, in terms of catalysts, reaction conditions, reactors, and product yields. A study has been carried out on the current state‐of‐knowledge of the technological capacity, advantages and disadvantages of the different routes, as well as on the prospects for the implementation of each route within the scope of the Sustainable Refinery. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry