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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their response to pesticides

Hage‐Ahmed, Karin, Rosner, Kathrin, Steinkellner, Siegrid
Pest management science 2019 v.75 no.3 pp. 583-590
active ingredients, agricultural management, agroecosystems, host plants, mechanism of action, mycorrhizal fungi, pesticides, soil types, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with the majority of plant species and can provide multiple benefits to the host plant. In agro‐ecosystems, the abundance and community structure of AMF are affected by agricultural management practices. This review describes and discusses current knowledge on the effects of inorganic and organic chemical pesticides on AMF in the conflicting area between agricultural use and environmental concerns. Variable effects have been reported following chemical pesticide use, ranging from neutral to positive and negative. Moreover, a species‐specific reaction has been documented. The reported effects of pesticides on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis are very diverse, and even when the same substance is investigated, the results are often contradictory. These effects depend on many parameters, such as the active substance, the mode of action, the mode of application and the dosage. In the field, determinants such as the physico‐chemical behavior of the active substances, the soil type and other soil microorganisms contribute to the fate of pesticides and thus the amount of active substances to which AMF are exposed. This review highlights that the fate of AMF following pesticide use needs to be addressed in a broader agro‐ecosystem context. © 2018 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.